When I was growing up, I was told that the name ‘Briand’ preceded my last name ‘de Crevecoeur’. My generation was the first to drop it because our parents thought it was too much trouble. They believed it was a useless title. Actually, we are the Briands from the town of Crevecoeur.
Isach Briand de Crevecoeur
Isach Briand de Crevecoeur was born November 21,1761 in Aarhus, Germany. He was a lawyer. He moved with his parents to Denmark and settled into an estate in Krumstrup, Bostrup. He married Maren Anna Margrethe Borgen, May 15, 1793. Maren was born March 21, 1763 in Langa prstg., Gudme hard., Svedborg amt. Her parents were Priest Peder Clausen Borgen and Birgitte Sophie Edwardsdatter Haar. She was adopted by her aunt and uncle, Sgpr. Skeby Niels Haar and Christiane Vilhelmine Dedekam. Maren died March 19, 1817, five years after giving birth to her twelfth child. Isach died October 17, 1832 at Krumstrup.
- Frederikke was born December 2, 1793 in Krumstrup.
- Martha Birgitte was born 1794 in Krumstrup. She died December 7, 1794. She is buried in the Ryslinge church.
- Peter Frederik was born February 8, 1796. He died October 10, 1805 and is buried in the Ryslinge church.
- Hans Bredahl was born May 15, 1791 at Krumstrup, Bostrup, Denmark. He married Jensine Hylleborg Hansen, born about 1811 in Odense, Germany. He died February 14, 1884 in Nakskov.
- Wibekka Marie was born December 17, 1798 at Krumstrup. She died at Ydernaes, Naestved.
- Anders was born July 17, 1800 at Krumstrup and died July 17, 1886 at Brahetrolleborg.
- Sophie Hedevig was born November 21, 1801 at Krumstrup. She died unmarried.
- Gebhart was born December 22, 1804 at Krumstrup. Gebhart married Maria Elisabeth Bussine. Maria’s father escaped with the French troops in Denmark and was then adopted by the Dahr family. Gebhart died March 27, 1854 at Ydernaes, Naestved.
- Anna Petrine was born September 21, 1806 at Krumstrup. She died March 8, 1834 at Odense Amt.
- Frederik Jorgen was born October 31, 1808 at Krumstrup. He died February 27, 1897 Nr. Soby.
- Preben was born June 18, 1812 at Krumstrup. He died January 13, 1819 and is buried in the Rylinge church.
Ryslinge Church has to do with the word rydning, i.e. to do, so that originally Ryslinge the people of that place, who cleared the land of and made the soil useful for crops. The church has been devoted to St.Nicolaus, Nikolaj) the sailor’s patron saint. From the oldest Christian time there has possibly been a wooden church, which in the early Middle ages has been hewn out of granite rocks by a Roman church in raw. Several of these are brickstone and some have been decorated with fine decorations, which later were reused and can be seen especially at the church’s east side. Here are also two men’s heads. One is very well preserved and shows a high age from the line between Viking age and Middle age. The church was later rebuilt and extended- the last time in the 1400’s. When the church was rebuild in gothic style, and the flat beamed ceiling replaced with vaults. Once in the 1500’s, the tower with it’s current armoury was added. As late as 1844 the church tithesowner, Cristian Sehested Juul to Ravnholt, built a transept towards the north with a comb-shaped end, and the space in the church was extended. This became important, as Vilhelm Birkedal in 1849 became priest and afterwards had gathered a big community. Ryslinge parish consists today of approximately 2,500 inhabitants.
At the tower entrance there is a very strange epitaph in the church tower. The inscription now is almost unreadable as the stone’s disintegration. On the top you can see a hive/beehive and a bird with eleven young birds. The epitaph is of “Isach Briand (d.1832) to Krumstrup sat over his wife Mare Anne Margrethe Borgen, who he with this beautiful epitaph prizes so noble for the great skill and fertility.”
Hans Bredahl Briand de Crevecoeur
Hans Bredahl was born May 15, 1797 at Krumstrup, the Briand de Crevecoeur estate. He married Jensine Hylleborg Hansen, born ca. 1811 in Odense. The Danish census records of 1834 and 1860 indicate he was a steward. Hans Bredahl was an inspector at the Frederiksdal and Steengaard Estates in Maribo amt. (county).
- Hans Christian Landkildehus was born November 23, 1828 to Hans and Lisbeth Christensdatter according to the Fraugde parish church records in Fyn. They never married.
- Hans Frederik Briand de Crevecoeur was born January 27, 1842 in Egelykke, Denmark. He married Anna Margarethe Marie Müntmeir in San Francisco, December 1868. He was murdered May 16, 1876 in Banning, California.
- Anton Christian Crone Briand de Crevecoeur was born July 28, 1845 in Rudköbing, Denmark. He traveled to the United States with his brother, Hans and served in the army. After the army, he traveled to San Francisco with his brother Hans. He married Mary Nelson in San Francisco in 1869. Later he moved to the Banning area and had a cattle ranch and a roadhouse. He and his wife, Mary had three children, Charles Osker, Emma and Anne. Anton became a naturalized citizen, May 12, 1874. Mary and Anton were divorced June 21, 1879. Anton lost custody of the children In papers written by Maude Russell, early Banning historian, she noted that Anton moved to Louisiana. I believe this information came from Hans’ son Ben de Crevecoeur, late in his life. However, I found a Charles de Crevecoeur in San Francisco.
- Waldemar Georg Issak Briand de Crevecoeur was born 1848.
- Oscar Marius Otto Briand de Crevecoeur was born 1849.
The “pure” male line died out in 1894 and the eldest son of Antonia Prytz nee Briand de Crevecoeur, rear admiral Emanuel received in 1905, a royal permission for him and his descendants to carry the name.
Hans Frederik August Briand de Crevecoeur
Hans was born January 27, 1842 in Egelykke (located two miles from Rudkjobing); Bodstrup Sogn (parish), Langeland, Norre Herred (district), Svendborg Amt (county). He was baptized on January 29.
In 1849, Denmark began conscripting (draft) its young men into military service at minimum wage. Even though it was a general conscription, usually only country dweller’s sons, millers, innkeepers and country schoolteachers had to serve.
Hans served as a soldier in Denmark and fought in the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1864. At the end of a previous war in 1851, Denmark had signed a treaty with Prussia that stated that Holstein and Schleswig would always remain together. Denmark kept changing her mind about the status of the two areas. In 1858, the two duchies were unincorporated. In 1863, Denmark incorporated them again. Finally, in 1864, Prussia and Austria had had enough and went to war with the Danes to prevent the incorporation of Schleswig into Denmark’s territory and constitutional structure.
Hans served in the 14th Regiment of the Danish Voluntary Army from February 25, 1864. He helped at the defense of the town of Fredericias. The Schleswig-Holstein War ended in July of 1864. At that time, Hans was a Lieutenant at the KR, (could be the Kings Regiment). Anton volunteered and served at the 8th Regiment from June 25, 1864.
The Danes were defeated and lost two duchies and other territory. Denmark lost 40% of her land and 20% of her population. It was a disaster for Denmark. The Prussian government insisted that the people of Schleswig speak German. They also drafted young Danish men into the Prussian army. It has been estimated that between 1864 and 1900, more than 1/3 of the population of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark, North American, Australia and New Zealand.
Hans’ father, Hans Bredahl was the third son of Isaach Briand de Crevecoeur. Hans’s mother, Jensigne Hansen was a commoner. Even though Hans Frederik was their oldest son, it doesn’t appear that he had much to inherit. Wages for a soldier were at a minimum. At this time, the United States was involved in our Civil War. Both sides advertised for soldiers in Europe. Perhaps, Hans and Anton came to fight in our Civil War.
Newspaper articles written about Hans’ sons, noted that he and his brother, Anton served in a New York volunteer regiment during the Civil War, but thus far, I have found no records of Hans or Anton serving in a volunteer New York regiment. Also, the Holstein-Slevig war ended in June of 1864 and our Civil War ended April 9, 1865. It doesn’t give them much time travel to the United States and to have fought in our Civil War. It could be that Han’s sons confused the war in Denmark with our Civil War. Recently, I found that they had immigrated to the United States to New York via Liverpool, England. They departed Hamburg, Germany April 14. 1865.
Hans and Anton were sent to Fort Boise, Idaho where they served three years in Company H, Twenty-third Infantry. Hans worked in the fort’s commissary and Anton worked in the stables, in charge of the mules. In 1834 the Hudson Bay Company near the mouth of the Boise River erected Fort Boise. In 1854 the Snake River Indians massacred twenty-one emigrants led by Alexander Ward in Boise Valley. This event lead to the closing of Fort Boise the next summer and Fort Hall in l856. Work began again on a new post in 1863 by a troop of Oregon Cavalry. Boise Barracks were established at Moores Creek by Major P. Lugenbeel and the US Cavalry. As wagon trains of miners and emigrants increased the next year, so did uprisings of the Snake River Shoshones. Thus, constant patrols crossed the Idaho tablelands to help keep the Indians peaceful, and to help support law officers in the mining camps. The site (renamed Boise Barracks in 1863) housed a small Cavalry force until 19l3.) Hans and Anton may have been involved in the Snake Wars of 1866-1868. He was discharged as a sergeant on May 26, 1868. When Hans was discharged he traveled from Idaho to the Army’s Pay Office in Oregon, arriving there in June 1868. His entire pay for his three years of service was $612.00.
After he was discharged, he traveled to San Francisco where he met and married the widow Margarethe Stubbe, also from Denmark. Margarethe was born in Sonderborg, Denmark May 27, 1840. Her parents were Johann Christopher Thomsen and Maria Sophia Müntmeir. She was already twice widowed with 3 children living. Together, Hans and Margarethe ran a boarding house. In the 1868 San Francisco city directory, Hans is listed at 419 East Street. In 1870, he was the proprietor of Constitution House at 106 Jackson Street, and in 1871, he was the proprietor of the Scandinavian Home at 22 Washington. Waldemar was born December 20, 1871.
Because Margarethe suffered from asthma, the family doctor recommended that she move to the Mojave Desert. In 1872, the family moved to the San Gorgonio Pass, near the present location of Banning, and began raising cattle and sheep. The town of Banning was not then in existence. They may have followed Hans’ brother, Anton there. Hans later moved his stock into the Morongo Valley, about a quarter of a mile from the later location of the Chuck Warren Ranch. Ben was born in the house that Hans built there. He is said to be the first white child born in the area. Three weeks after Ben was born, they moved to a place just north of the present Morongo Indian Reservation, which had not been established. Hans started improving the place, and they were getting along.
In 1872, the family moved to the Banning area and began raising cattle and sheep. They may have followed Hans’ brother, Anton there. On May 16, 1876, Hans was murdered by a neighbor who claimed Hans had slandered him.
Hans was murdered May 16, 1876. There have been several stories about why William Gates murdered Hans. About 1962, an 81-year-old Burt Jost told the Daily Enterprise that Hans “ran a sawmill in Water Canyon near the Banning Bench. He was murdered and robbed of his payroll one day by a man, who shot him in the back with a double barrel shotgun.” This is the only evidence of Hans running a sawmill.
Sometime in the 1940’s Ben de Crevecoeur related a story to 29 Palms’ first historian, Maude Russell. A rich relative from New York City sent out a spoiled, worthless son, William Gates, hoping Hans might be able to keep him out of trouble, so he would not disgrace his wealthy father. Unfortunately, they also sent their son, William, a liberal allowance each month, on the receipt of which, he went to Los Angeles, and got drunk, returning when the money was gone. He finally stole some $1,600 dollars from Hans and went to Los Angeles. He was apprehended and Hans recovered $400 of the amount. Hans had the young man released and brought him back home with him. Soon after, the young Gates came up behind Hans and shot him in the back with a shotgun. As he did not fall, Gates came closer, shooting him in the head with a six-shooter. On trial, young Gates was sentenced to be hanged, but his influential family managed to get the sentence changed to life imprisonment. While in prison at San Quentin, he contracted tuberculosis. In September, 1880, the Governor pardoned Gates and he died a few months later.
Now there are a few problems with this story. Ben was a baby when his father was killed and this story was related at least 40 years after the murder. It is unlikely that Hans had $1,600 available to steal. In January, before Hans was killed, he was sued for non-payment of interest on his property. A witness testified at the trial that Gates said that he killed Hans in self-defense. When asked why, he said that Hans had threatened his life. No one had heard the threat, but there was mention of previous trouble between Hans and William. The jury did not sentence Gates to be hanged, but sentenced to life imprisonment.
May 27, 1876, The Guardian reported that Hans de Crevicour had been murdered by William Gates. “Gates of good repute, was slandered.” This seems to be the closest we will get to the facts. In the transcript of the Gates murder trial, the judge instructs the jury concerning the difference between first, second, third degree murder and self-defense. He even goes so far as to admonish the jury that slander is not considered grounds for self-defense.
Gates was found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to San Quentin in July of 1876 to serve a life sentence. He served four years and was pardoned by the Governor in September of 1880. He died several months later of tuberculosis.
- Waldemar Briand de Crevecoeur was born in San Francisco on December 20, 1871. He was a rancher in Beaumont, California. He also served as a deputy sheriff and was on the Willie Boy hunt. He died October 23, 1938 from a heart attack.
- Jefferson Briand de Crevecoeur was born in Dunlap Canyon, Riverside Co., California on September 13, 1873. He died in 1889. I had always heard that he drowned; however, according to Elwood Jost, Jeff accidentally shot himself in the leg. By the time the family got him to a doctor, gangrene had set in and he was beyond help.
- Benjamin Barton Briand de Crevecoeur.
Benjamin Barton Briand de Crevecoeur
Ben was born 16, l876, reportedly the first white child to be born in Morongo Valley or Little Morongo. After Ben’s father was murder, Margarethe married Francis Christopher Jost on January 7, 1878, They continued to live on at the ranch until 1888, when they and several other families in the area were dispossessed to make way for the Morongo Indian Reservation. It wasn’t until 1892 that the Jost’s were given in exchange a 1/2 section of dry land northwest of Banning. In the meantime, because of the children, Jost chose to purchase a home in Banning on the corner of Murray and Hays.
Ben spent his childhood among the Indians, learning to use a bow and arrow and how to track. At the age of 13, he helped drive cattle and horses from Arizona. His first tracking took place when Ben was 16. He had been offered $20 to find some stolen guns. He spent two days tracking the thief and found the stolen items, but was never paid. Ben, while a young teenager, did freighting on the desert.
On December 20, 1895, Ben married Sarah E. Johnson at the
Methodist Episcopal Church in Riverside, California
. Ben was 21 and Sarah was 18. Sarah was the daughter of Frank Johnson of Illinois and Ardinomia Castille. The witnesses were Ben’s half-brother, Henry Stubbe and Henry’s wife, Bertha.
In 1897, Ben was appointed deputy constable of Banning. When Constable Hugh Carpenter left mid term, Ben served out his term and was elected and reelected several times.
Ben became a storekeeper in 1903 or 1904, when he and E. L. Johnson opened a store in Banning. He sold his interest in it in 1905.
In 1908, Banning contracted with J. R. Thompson to build a gas plant. Ben did the excavating, with 20 to 30 men laying the mains. Also in 1908, Ben was appointed as a deputy to the Department of the Interior. His primary responsibility was to “search for and seize intoxicating liquors whenever found on Indian reservations, and arrest any and all persons concerned….” In 1910, he was appointed as Special Officer to the Department of the Interior. His salary in 1910 was $1,200 a year plus expenses. In those days it was illegal for Indians to drink alcohol.
The one story that would follow him most of his life and after was the hunt for an Indian who had reportedly killed another Indian and kidnapped the daughter. It never would have been any more than another incident, if it had not been for timing. However, President Taft was on a Presidential tour and it was not going too well for the news people following his tour. Here it was 1909, out west, and they were presented with a real ‘cowboy and Indian’ story.
There have been many newspaper and magazine articles written, at least two books, and a movie,
In September of 1912, Ben was appointed deputy sheriff of Banning. In 1918, he was made marshal.
In 1929, Ben represented the Sheriff’s department in the trial of a serial killer. Stewart Gordon Northcott kidnapped several young boys, held them as hostages, sexually abused them and then killed them. He had a 12-year-old nephew living with him who he also abused and had forced into helping him murder one of his victims. The boy was an illegal alien from Canada and he fled home. After a lengthy extradition process, the boy was brought back to Riverside and told the authorities everything.
After Northcott was brought in, Ben went out to the chicken ranch, where Northcott lived and searched the ranch. He found lye pits, bone fragments and other evidence. Ben later testified at Northcott’s trial as to what he had found at the ranch.
Northcott was held in the Banning jail, as was his nephew. The authorities treated the young boy sympathetically and Ben was his favorite.
Northcott was convicted and hanged October 2, 1930. His mother was sentenced to life imprisonment, but was later paroled. His nephew was set free in exchange for his testimony.
In 2008. Clint Eastwood directed “Changeling” with Angelina Jolie. It was based on the story of a mother of one of Northcott’s victims.
In 1916, he developed a ranch at the mouth of Banning Water canyon. Soon after, Ben was appointed deputy sheriff in San Bernardino County. In September of 1918, he was elected Constable of San Gorgonio. He was then appointed deputy of Riverside.
In 1926, Ben was made superintendent of the county prison camp. In Ben’s papers was a letter from the inmates. It was written to Ben upon his retirement as superintendent. They expressed that he was a just man and thanked him for his fairness.
April 17, 1928, Ben and Sarah separated. Their divorce was final February 09, 1931. In 1932, Ben married Florence Bennett.
Ben died March 21, l949, at a rest home in Banning. He had been living with his half-brother, Bert Jost.
I have written a book about Ben and his parents. It is entitled “Caught Dead to Rights, a Biography of Ben de Crevecoeur, a Real Western Lawman”.
- Barton Ray Briand de Crevecoeur was born September 14, 1896. He died September 29, 1957.
- Clarence Briand de Crevecoeur was born May 24, 1901. He died July 28, 1920.
- Walene Briand de Crevecoeur was born on September 13, 1913. She died less than a year later of tuberculosis on February 14, 1915
Barton Ray Briand de Crevecoeur
Barton Ray Barton “Bart” Ray Briand de Crevecoeur was born September 14, 1896 in San Bernardino, California. He had a trucking company and hauled much of the timber up the mountain for the Arrowhead lodge.
He arried Lessie Floy Guild and they had three children. Floy was born June 30, 1896 to Nathan Harper Guild and Millie Francis Massey. Nathan was born June 1871 in Gilliam Indiana and Millie was born March 27, 1897 in Medaryville, Indiana. Bart and Floy divorced and he married Emma. In 1915, Bart received a patent for a wire clothes pin, US 1162577 A. Bart died September 29, 1957 in San Bernardino, California.
- Ray Barton Briand de Crevecoeur was born August 7, 1914 in Colton, San Bernardino Co., California. He married Letha Marie Hutsell, born June 21, 1922. He raised 2 daughters, Susan and Raylene. He worked for many years at Kaiser Steele and Civil Service at March Air Force Base.
- Harold “Red” Guild Briand de Crevecoeur was born April 23, 1916 in Colton, California. He served in the Navy and was stationed at Pearl Harbor when it was attacked. He married Natalle Francis Broderick July 31, 1949. They had 2 children, Zoe and Robert. After Natalle passed away June 22, 1977, Red married a widow, Laverne Gabbert. He died 3 months later on June 30, 1980.
- Dorcus Janette Briand de Crevecoeur was born October 18, 1917 in Colton, California. She married Walter Ford and together they raised 3 children, Jerry Lee, Calvin, and Barbara. She died June 25, 1992.
Harold Guild Briand de Crevecoeur
Harold “Red”or “Buddy” Guild Briand de Crevecoeur was born April 23, 1916 in Colton, California. He was the only red-head in the family which had people wondering until someone remembered that one of his Guild uncles had red hair before he went bald at a very early age. When Buddy was about 6 years old, his parents, Floy and Bart divorced. Floy took Dorcus and Bart took Ray and Buddy. Dad said that Bart had a girl-friend that was very lazy and made the boys do much of the work. Aunt Letha said that Uncle Ray told of a birthday cake she had made for one of the boys that they wouldn’t eat because they were convinced it was poison. The girl-friend convinced Bart to put the boys in a boarding school that advertised horses. The only horse they had was the horse that pulled the milk wagon. They had to take their shoes off and walk to classes in the mud when it rained. But the worse thing was that they would not let Buddy stay with his brother and he was very scared. One day, his Aunt Midge came to visit and he tried to hide in the trunk of her car when she left. It was shortly after, that Floy took both the boys.
He ran away from home at the age of 16, heading for his grandmother’s farm in Bonanza, Oregon. Unfortunately, the train he hopped was headed for Texas. He told of a family of Mexicans who were heading north on his return trip that fed him even though they couldn’t speak a word of English. He believed that he would have starved, if not for them. Upon arriving in Bonanza, he went to the local post office to get his grandmother’s address. Even though it was not allowed, the local post master took pity on him and headed him in the right direction.
Even though, Red never finished school, he often told about walking a mile to school in the snow. Actually, he rode a horse down to the bus stop in the morning, releasing it to find it’s way home and his grandmother would come down for him after school.
When Buddy was about 16, his mother married Bennett Babb. Buddy worked for several years with his step-father on his chicken ranch until he joined the Navy. The first time he stood in formation, and the officer read out their names, the officer stumbled over the last name, took one look at Buddy and said, “We’ll call you Red.” After basic training, he sailed to Honolulu on the submarine Pompano. He was stationed on a minesweeper and often tied up next to the battleship Arizona. On the morning of December 7, 1942, Red was manning the radio, when the message came in that Pearl Harbor had been bombed. He made them repeat the message several times and a few more times after he reported it to his Chief. By the time they sailed back into Pearl, the colors of the day had changed and it was with some difficulty that they were finally allowed to come in. Dad never talked much about what he saw, but he had several friends on board the Arizona.
He never saw action except maybe once. A plane was spotted and the guns fired at the plane. They were unsuccessful. It was later learned that it was one of ours.
In about 1943 or 1944, Red went home to San Bernardino on leave. After visiting with his brother’s family, he borrowed Ray’s car. Later he was hit head-on by an under-age, drunk driver. Friends recalled later driving by the accident and seeing a sailor walking around with blood running down his face cursing. Red was taken to the hospital, where they cleaned him up and left him, thinking that he would not survive. After about 3 days, they decided he was going to make it. In a letter written by his grandfather, Ben de Crevecoeur, he talks about Red having broken legs. He had no broken bones, but he carried a nasty scar on his forehead for the rest of his life and later suffered from arthritis in his lower back. He was medically discharged in 1944.
After discharge from the service, Red went to work with an old school friend, Jim Marks, roofing. In 1948, he met Natalle Broderick. They were mutual friends of owners of a diner, they agreed to meet one another. On their first date, Natalle said that she would love to run her fingers threw Red’s hair. It was thick and wavy and he had ‘buttermilk’ blue eyes. They were married June 31, 1949 in Las Vegas, California.
In 1951, Red and “Bubbles” bought a chicken buying business from Red’s brother-in-law, Walter Ford along with ¾ of an acre in what was then Carlsbad, California. In the early 1960’s, the area was annexed into Oceanside. The business went well and they were able to buy a home in Oceanside for Bubbles’ parents, Elmore and Grace Broderick. Red owned the business until the mid 1960’s when Los Angeles came down and was able to buy the chickens that were not laying enough for the chicken farmers for a higher price than Red could offer. Red closed up the business and went back to roofing for a few years until he was hired at Camp Pendleton, Civil Service. He worked until about 1974 when he retired. Bubbles and Red moved to 10 acres in Anza, California. They purchased a trailer and Red built a room along side. Bubbles died in 1977. Red made friends with a neighbor who owned a caterpillar tractor. He let Red use it and Red cleared many pads and roads in Anza. He built a barn and for his birthday that year, he had a barn painting birthday party. It was quite a crowd and they painted everything! We had to hide the dogs in fear that they too would get painted green.
In 1979, Red met his son’s widowed next door neighbor, Laverne Gabbert. They were married 3 months before Red passed away. They were on a road trip to visit Laverne’s son in Corvallis, Oregon. They visited with Red’s sister, Dorcus in Springfield, Oregon on the trip up. Laverne said that Red was sowing seeds by hand in the field when he fell from a massive heart attack.
One thing I want to add to Red’s story. Since he had not graduated from high school, he was in the process of completing his high education by mail, when he married Natalle. He was also studying drafting, hoping to become an architect, He had a beautiful printing hand. With a child on the way, he dropped all that to support his family. When he moved to Anza, he made friends with many successful men; a CEO of a large construction company in Los Angeles as well as a high ranking manager at McDonnell Douglas. When he passed away, these men were truly moved to tears. It left me with the feeling that it is not so important to achieve great deeds. My father was a success because he was a hard working, honest, man that people could count on.
Remington, The Adobes of Twenty-nine Palms, (Desert Moon Press 1988) The Desert Trail, April 1, l949 Hughes, History of Banning and San Gorgonio Pass, (Banning Record Print) Unknown newspaper article dated October 23, Marriage License and Certificate, Riverside County, Calif. Hughes, History of Banning and San Gorgonio Pass, Banning Record Print Same as 20.  Same as 20. Letter dated April 18, l908, Department of the Interior, United States Indian Service Letter dated August 3, 1910, Department of the Interior, United States Indian Service  Tom Hughes, The History of Banning and San Gorgonio Pass, (Banning Record Print)  “Serial Killers A-Z – Gordon Northcott”, Available from http://darkday.tripod.com/I-p/northcott.html. Internet. Accessed July 7, 2001 Final Divorce Decree-Action #19885 Certificate of Death
 Wørishøffer, (oberst): Fortegnelse over Danske Frivillege, 1864, København, 1914, side 3 og 6.  Hamburg Passenger Lists 1850-1934, 373-7 I, VIII B 1 Band 012 U.S. Army Enlistment Register and Han’s Discharge papers.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huguenot   Danish Demographic Database (DDD) http://ddd.dda.dk/nygaard/visning_billed.asp?id=48708&sort=e  Arhus county copybook of July 6, 1776.  Jyske efterretninger February 2, 1784.  Stiftfysikus-The county’s copybook August 4, 1776.  Lise Gorgone on a visit to Krumstrup, Denmark.  Email sent fromPeter Landkildehus <firstname.lastname@example.org> March 6, 2006  San Francisco Call Newspaper 1869: http://www.feefhs.org/fdb2/1869/sf1869m.html  Tom Hughes, The History of Banning and the San Gorgonio Pass, Banning Record Print